Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
01/30/12 14:43:47 (6 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracFastCgi

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac with FastCGI = 
     2 
     3[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers. 
     4 
     5'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]. 
     6 
     7== Simple Apache configuration == 
     8 
     9There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and 
     10`mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date. 
     11 
     12==== setup with `mod_fastcgi` ==== 
     13`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file: 
     14{{{ 
     15# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files 
     16# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like 
     17# this is probably already present) 
     18<IfModule mod_fastcgi.c> 
     19   AddHandler fastcgi-script .fcgi 
     20   FastCgiIpcDir /var/lib/apache2/fastcgi  
     21</IfModule> 
     22LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so 
     23}}} 
     24Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group. 
     25 
     26Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but 
     27calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`. 
     28 
     29You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default: 
     30{{{ 
     31FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac 
     32}}} 
     33 
     34Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like: 
     35{{{ 
     36FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects 
     37}}} 
     38 
     39==== setup with `mod_fcgid` ==== 
     40Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` 
     41instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important. 
     42{{{ 
     43ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/ 
     44}}} 
     45 
     46To setup Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use 
     47`DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or 
     48`Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try 
     49alternative environment setup below. 
     50 
     51{{{ 
     52DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/ 
     53}}} 
     54 
     55==== alternative environment setup ==== 
     56A better method to specify path to Trac environment it to embed the path 
     57into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server 
     58environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules 
     59(and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well): 
     60{{{ 
     61import os 
     62os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv" 
     63}}} 
     64or 
     65{{{ 
     66import os 
     67os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir" 
     68}}} 
     69 
     70With this method different projects can be supported by using different 
     71`.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`. 
     72 
     73See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this: 
     74{{{ 
     75ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/ 
     76}}} 
     77 
     78== Simple Cherokee Configuration == 
     79 
     80The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process. 
     81You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down. 
     82First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter. 
     83 
     84{{{ 
     85Host: 
     86localhost:4433 
     87 
     88Interpreter: 
     89/usr/bin/tracd —single-env —daemonize —protocol=scgi —hostname=localhost —port=4433 /path/to/project/ 
     90}}} 
     91 
     92If the port was not reachable, the interpreter command would be launched. Note that, in the definition of the information source, you will have to manually launch the spawner if you use a ''Remote host'' as ''Information source'' instead of a ''Local interpreter''. 
     93 
     94After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source. 
     95The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/chrome/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''/usr/share/trac/htdocs/'' 
     96 
     97Note:\\ 
     98If the tracd process fails to start up, and cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package.\\ 
     99Python-flup is a dependency which provides trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on debian based systems with: 
     100{{{ 
     101sudo apt-get install python-flup 
     102}}} 
     103 
     104== Simple Lighttpd Configuration == 
     105 
     106The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd]. 
     107 
     108lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance 
     109environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load. 
     110 
     111For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf: 
     112{{{ 
     113#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory 
     114var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable 
     115fastcgi.server = ("/trac" => 
     116    
     117                   ("trac" => 
     118                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock", 
     119                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary, 
     120                      "check-local" => "disable", 
     121                      "bin-environment" => 
     122                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv") 
     123                     ) 
     124                   ) 
     125                 ) 
     126}}} 
     127 
     128Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, 
     129and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` 
     130using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration). 
     131 
     132Note that lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example, see #Trac2418. This should be fixed since lighttpd 1.4.23, and you may need to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as parameter of fastcgi.server. 
     133 
     134For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`: 
     135{{{ 
     136fastcgi.server = ("/first" => 
     137                   ("first" => 
     138                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-first.sock", 
     139                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary, 
     140                     "check-local" => "disable", 
     141                     "bin-environment" => 
     142                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-first") 
     143                    ) 
     144                  ), 
     145                  "/second" => 
     146                    ("second" => 
     147                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-second.sock", 
     148                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary, 
     149                     "check-local" => "disable", 
     150                     "bin-environment" => 
     151                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-second") 
     152                    ) 
     153                  ) 
     154                ) 
     155}}} 
     156Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment 
     157variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to 
     158`first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings. 
     159Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even 
     160if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script. 
     161{{{ 
     162#!div class=important 
     163'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user. 
     164}}} 
     165For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules: 
     166{{{ 
     167server.modules              = ( 
     168... 
     169  "mod_auth", 
     170... 
     171) 
     172 
     173auth.backend               = "htpasswd" 
     174 
     175# Separated password files for each project 
     176# See "Conditional Configuration" in 
     177# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/configuration.txt 
     178 
     179$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/first/" { 
     180  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-first/htpasswd.htaccess" 
     181} 
     182$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/second/" { 
     183  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-second/htpasswd.htaccess" 
     184} 
     185 
     186# Enable auth on trac URLs, see 
     187# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/authentication.txt 
     188 
     189auth.require = ("/first/login" => 
     190                ("method"  => "basic", 
     191                 "realm"   => "First project", 
     192                 "require" => "valid-user" 
     193                ), 
     194                "/second/login" => 
     195                ("method"  => "basic", 
     196                 "realm"   => "Second project", 
     197                 "require" => "valid-user" 
     198                ) 
     199               ) 
     200 
     201 
     202}}} 
     203Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist. 
     204 
     205Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16. 
     206 
     207Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI: 
     208{{{ 
     209# Aliasing functionality is needed 
     210server.modules += ("mod_alias") 
     211 
     212# Setup an alias for the static resources 
     213alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs") 
     214 
     215# Use negative lookahead, matching all requests that ask for any resource under /trac, EXCEPT in 
     216# /trac/chrome/common, and use FastCGI for those 
     217$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/trac(?!/chrome/common)" { 
     218# Even if you have other fastcgi.server declarations for applications other than Trac, do NOT use += here 
     219fastcgi.server = ("/trac" => 
     220                   ("trac" => 
     221                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock", 
     222                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary, 
     223                      "check-local" => "disable", 
     224                      "bin-environment" => 
     225                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv") 
     226                     ) 
     227                   ) 
     228                 ) 
     229} 
     230}}} 
     231The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks. 
     232Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example: 
     233{{{ 
     234#  This is for handling multiple projects 
     235  alias.url       = ( "/trac/" => "/path/to/trac/htdocs/" ) 
     236 
     237  fastcgi.server += ("/projects"  => 
     238                      ("trac" => 
     239                        ( 
     240                          "socket" => "/tmp/trac.sock", 
     241                          "bin-path" => fcgi_binary, 
     242                          "check-local" => "disable", 
     243                          "bin-environment" => 
     244                            ("TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR" => "/path/to/parent/dir/of/projects/" ) 
     245                        ) 
     246                      ) 
     247                    ) 
     248#And here starts the global auth configuration 
     249  auth.backend = "htpasswd" 
     250  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/unique/htpassword/file/trac.htpasswd" 
     251  $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/projects/.*/login$" { 
     252    auth.require = ("/" => 
     253                     ( 
     254                       "method"  => "basic", 
     255                       "realm"   => "trac", 
     256                       "require" => "valid-user" 
     257                     ) 
     258                   ) 
     259  } 
     260}}} 
     261 
     262Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME 
     263{{{ 
     264fastcgi.server = ("/trac" => 
     265                   ("trac" => 
     266                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock", 
     267                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary, 
     268                      "check-local" => "disable", 
     269                      "bin-environment" => 
     270                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv", 
     271                        "LC_TIME" => "ru_RU") 
     272                     ) 
     273                   ) 
     274                 ) 
     275}}} 
     276For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13. 
     277 
     278Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects. 
     279 
     280If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug] 
     281 
     282Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac. 
     283 
     284Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions: 
     285 
     286  If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing. 
     287 
     288 
     289== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration == 
     290 
     291The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed]. 
     292 
     293!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments. 
     294 
     295=== Setup === 
     296 
     297 1. Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first. 
     298 
     299 2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via: 
     300 
     301{{{ 
     302http://yourdomain.com/trac/ 
     303}}} 
     304 
     305 3. Go “!TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”. 
     306 
     307{{{ 
     308Name: MyTracFCGI         
     309Address: uds://tmp/lshttpd/mytracfcgi.sock 
     310Max Connections: 10 
     311Environment: TRAC_ENV=/fullpathto/mytracproject/ <--- path to root folder of trac project 
     312Initial Request Timeout (secs): 30 
     313Retry Timeout (secs): 0 
     314Persistent Connection   Yes 
     315Connection Keepalive Timeout: 30 
     316Response Bufferring: No  
     317Auto Start: Yes 
     318Command: /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi  <--- path to trac.fcgi 
     319Back Log: 50 
     320Instances: 10 
     321}}} 
     322 
     323 4. Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “!TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”. 
     324 
     325{{{ 
     326DB Type: Password File 
     327Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later 
     328User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file 
     329}}} 
     330 
     331If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos. 
     332 
     333 5. Go to “!PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”. 
     334 
     335{{{ 
     336URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created     
     337Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created 
     338Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4) 
     339}}} 
     340 
     341 6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini` 
     342 
     343{{{ 
     344#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables 
     345base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to 
     346url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/      <--- link of project 
     347link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo 
     348}}} 
     349 
     350 7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:  
     351 
     352{{{ 
     353http://yourdomain.com/trac/ 
     354}}} 
     355 
     356== Simple Nginx Configuration == 
     357 
     358 1. Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.6.32 
     359{{{ 
     360    server { 
     361        listen       10.9.8.7:443; 
     362        server_name  trac.example; 
     363 
     364        ssl                  on; 
     365        ssl_certificate      /etc/ssl/trac.example.crt; 
     366        ssl_certificate_key  /etc/ssl/trac.example.key; 
     367 
     368        ssl_session_timeout  5m; 
     369 
     370        ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1; 
     371        ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP; 
     372        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on; 
     373 
     374        # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``. 
     375        if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) { 
     376             set $path_info /$1; 
     377        } 
     378 
     379        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login`` 
     380        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce 
     381        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate 
     382        # for accessing the whole site. 
     383        # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.) 
     384        location / { 
     385            auth_basic            "trac realm"; 
     386            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd; 
     387 
     388            # socket address 
     389            fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock; 
     390 
     391            # python - wsgi specific 
     392            fastcgi_param HTTPS on; 
     393 
     394            ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES 
     395            # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix. 
     396            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.) 
     397            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        ""; 
     398            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info; 
     399 
     400            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them 
     401            fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method; 
     402            fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name; 
     403            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port; 
     404            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol; 
     405            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING     $query_string; 
     406 
     407            # for authentication to work 
     408            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user; 
     409            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user; 
     410        } 
     411    } 
     412}}} 
     413 
     414 2. Modified trac.fcgi: 
     415 
     416{{{ 
     417#!/usr/bin/env python 
     418import os 
     419sockaddr = '/home/trac/run/instance.sock' 
     420os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/home/trac/instance' 
     421 
     422try: 
     423     from trac.web.main import dispatch_request 
     424     import trac.web._fcgi 
     425 
     426     fcgiserv = trac.web._fcgi.WSGIServer(dispatch_request,  
     427          bindAddress = sockaddr, umask = 7) 
     428     fcgiserv.run() 
     429 
     430except SystemExit: 
     431    raise 
     432except Exception, e: 
     433    print 'Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n', 
     434    print 'Oops...' 
     435    print 
     436    print 'Trac detected an internal error:' 
     437    print 
     438    print e 
     439    print 
     440    import traceback 
     441    import StringIO 
     442    tb = StringIO.StringIO() 
     443    traceback.print_exc(file=tb) 
     444    print tb.getvalue() 
     445 
     446}}} 
     447 
     448 3. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that: 
     449 
     450{{{ 
     451trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py  
     452}}} 
     453 
     454The above assumes that: 
     455 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory. 
     456 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment 
     457 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information 
     458 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under 
     459  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`) 
     460  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time 
     461 
     462Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.  
     463Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.  
     464 
     465If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.  
     466 
     467Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224 
     468 
     469---- 
     470See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]